|March 5, 2011||Posted by ivailo under Vidin|
Precipitation is irregular and varies by season. Maximum precipitation occurs in the summer, with a 69 мм/м2 peak in June. Precipitation minimums occur in the winter (January, February and March), as well as in August and September.
Relative humidity is reversely proportional to precipitation. The maximums occur in the winter (81- 90%), the minimums are in the summer (58 – 68%). The flat landscape allows for wind formation. Prevailing winds are western, with an average annual speed of 1.9 m/sec, humid and often accompanied by rainfall.
he municipality of Vidin is located in the northwestern corner of the Republic of Bulgaria (44°13′ latitude и 22°41′ longitude) and follows the two most typical bends of the Danube in the section where the river flows from north to south. The city of Vidin is located in the lowest terrace of the Vidin Lowland, 35 meters above sea level.
The climate in the municipality of Vidin is moderate continental. The winters are very cold, with minimum precipitation, while summers are extremely hot, with maximum precipitation. The flat landscape allows for humid and warm air flows from the northwest in the spring, summer an fall, and for cold continental air flows from the east in the winter.
The climate, landscape and lithologic composition predetermine the soil formation processes. The municipality of Vidin falls into the area of carbonate and typical humus soils. Several types of soil may be seen in the municipality:
Lye humus – mostly around the villages of Dinkovitsa, Major Ouzounovo, Biala Rada and Slana Bara; Срещат с в района на селата Динковица, Майор Узуново, Бяла Рада и Слана бара.
Alluvial – around the villages of Major Ouzounovo, Slanotrun, Inovo, Gradets, Rouptsi, Boukovets and the cities of Vidin and Dounavtsi. These are some of the most fertile soils in the municipality;
Humus carbonate – exist in small spots among other soil types, based on limestone rocks. Typically found on steep slopes.
The territory of the municipality of Vidin is made of young and older geologic deposits that have formed industrial deposits of gypsum and inert materials. The geologic composition is made of alluvial deposits from the Quaternary on a base of dense, waterproof Pliocene clay. The total thickness of the alluvial complex varies between 10 and 20 meters.
The water areas account for 5.8% of municipality’s territory. The Danube, with its tributaries, is the main water thoroughfare. Its tributaries come from the main divide of the Western Balkan Mountain Range and from the pre-mountain springs. The Danube is a deep, navigable river. Its level changes during the different seasons. At the end of the winter, the level rises quickly, to reach its maximum in June-July. At that time, the high water leaves the riverbed and floods the islands and the trees along the riverbank up to 2 meters high.
In September, the level plummets rapidly, to reach its annual minimum. The undergound waters in the area are directly connected to the Danube and their levels are influenced by the river. In May-June, they rise, while September-December they drain. Underground waters are fed also from the waters of unflooded terraces along the neighboring slopes and from rainfalls. Underground waters are located 1.5 to 5.8 meters beneath the surface.
Vegetation and Animals
Due to the climate and the landscape, municipality of Vidin is not rich of vegetation species. Some typical Red Book representatives include:
1. Allium angulosum, L. 1753, f. Liliaceae – rare
2. Galanthus nivalis, L. 1753, f. Amarullidaceae – endangered
3. Leucojum aestivum, L. 1759, f. Amarullidaceae
4. Chamaecytisus danybialis (Vel.) Rothm. 1944, f. Fabaceae – rare
5. Vicia pisiformes, L. 1753, f. Fabaceae – rare
6. Tilia rubra, D. C. 1813 (T. Caucasica), Rupr. 1869, f. Tiliaceae – rare
7. Elatine alsinatrum, L. 1753, f. Elatineceae – rare, included in the European list of rare, endangered and endemic species
8. Nymphoides poltata (S. G. Comell), O. Kuntze 1891, f. Gentiananceae – rare
9. Convolvulus elegantissimus, Mill 1768 (C. tenuissimus Sibth. 1806, f. Convolvulaceae – endangered
10. Digitalis laevigata, Waldst et Kit 1805, f. Digitaliaceae – rare
11. Centaurea rumelica, Boiss. 1856 (C. stereophuylla subsp. rumelica (Boiss) Stoj. Et Acht., f. Centaureaceae – rare
12. Potentila anserina, L. 1753, f. Potentilaceae – rare
Some animal species included in the Red Book, vol. II, are:
1. Acipenser nudiven tris, Lovetzky, 1829 – endangered
2. Eudontomyzon danfordi Heskel et Kner 1858
3. Chalcalburnus chalcoides Guldenstaedt 1772 – endangered and rare
4. Cyprinus carpio L. 1758 – endangered
5. Anguilla anguilla L. 1758 – endangered
6. Lota lota L. 1758
7. Pungitus platigaster Kessler 1859 – endangered
8. Stirostedion volgensis Gm. 1786 – rare
9. Neogobios Kessleri Gunther 1861 – endangered
10. Elapfe longissima longissima, Laurentii 1768 – endangered
11. Phalacrocorax carbo, L. 1758 – endangered
12. Ciconia nigra, L. 1758 – endangered
13. Egretta allba, L. 1758 – endangered, included in the European list of endangered birds
14. Ardea purpureaq L. 1756 – endangered
15. Platalea lucorodia, L. 1758 – endangered, included in the European list of endangered birds
16. Plegadis falcinellus, L. 1766 – endangered, included in the European list of endangered birds
17. Branta ruficollis, Pall. 1769 – endangered, included in the European list of endangered birds
18. Pandion halientus, L. 1758 – endangered, included in the European list of endangered birds
19. Haliacetus albicilla, L. 1758 – endangered, included in the European list of endangered birds
20. Aceipiter gentilis, L. 1758 – endangered
21. Aceipiter ninus, L. 1758 – endangered
22. Hieraaetus pennatus, Gm. 1788 – endangered
23. Neophron perchopterus, L. 1758 – endangered, included in the European list of endangered birds
24. Circaetus gallicus, Gm. 1788 – endangered
25. Falco cherrus, Gray 1834 – endangered, included in the European list of endangered birds
26. Falco subbuteo, L. 1758 – endangered
27. Tetrau urogallus, L. 1758 – endangered
28. Scolopax rusticola, L. 1758 – rare
29. Myotis emarginatus, Geoffroy 1806 – rare
30. Myotis capaccinis, Bonaparte 1837 – rare